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ASTM Packaging Reference

ASTM  Packaging Standards for Crating and Containers
To discuss any of the following standards, please see our contact page.

Goodwin Robbins Packaging is a direct prime supplier to the Aerospace, Military and Industrial manufacturer.Familiar with both ASTM and Mil-Std-2073-1D, we certify to your Special Packaging Instructions, (SPI). QMS qualified.


ASTM D951-99 Standard Test Method for Water Resistance of Shipping Containers by Spray

ASTM D999-01 Standard Methods for Vibration Testing of Shipping Containers

ASTM D1596-97(2003) Standard Test Method for Dynamic Shock Cushioning Characteristics of Packaging Material

ASTM D3951-98 Standard Practice for Commercial Packaging

ASTM D4168-95(2002) Standard Test Methods for Transmitted Shock Characteristics of Foam-in-Place Cushioning Materials

ASTM D4332-01e1 Standard Practice for Conditioning Containers, Packages, or Packaging Components for Testing

ASTM D5118/D5118M-95(2001) Standard Practice for Fabrication of Fiberboard Shipping Boxes

ASTM D5639/D5639M-95(2000)e1 Standard Practice for Selection of Corrugated Fiberboard Materials and Box Construction Based on Performance Requirements

ASTM D6251/D6251M-01 Standard Specification for Wood-Cleated Panel board Shipping Boxes

ASTM D951-99 Standard Test Method for Water Resistance of Shipping Containers by Spray

1.1 This test method covers the determination of the water resistance of shipping containers.1.2 This test method is frequently used in conjunction with other tests made prior to or after the spray test, such as the drop test, vibration test, inclined impact test, or compression test.

1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
ASTM D999-01 Standard Methods for Vibration Testing of Shipping Containers

1.1 These methods cover vibration tests of filled shipping containers. Such tests may be used to assess the performance of a container, with its interior packing and means of closure, both in terms of its strength and of the protection it provides its contents when it is subjected to vibration such as it experiences in transportation. These procedures are suitable for testing containers of any form, material, kind, design of interior packing, means of closure, and any size and weight. They are not intended for determining the response of products to vibration for product design purposes, nor are they intended for tests of products in their operational configuration as other more suitable procedures are available for these purposes.

1.2 The following methods appear: Method A1-Repetitive Shock Test (Vertical Motion). Method A2-Repetitive Shock Test (Rotary Motion). Method B-Single Container Resonance Test. Method C-Palletized Load, Unitized Load, or Vertical Stack Resonance Test.

1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Specific precautionary statements are given in Section 6.

1.3 These methods fulfill the requirements of International Organization for Standardization standards ISO 8318 and ISO 2247.The ISO standards may not meet the requirements for these methods.

ASTM D1596-97(2003) Standard Test Method for Dynamic Shock Cushioning Characteristics of Packaging Material

1.1 This test method covers a procedure for obtaining dynamic shock cushioning characteristics of packaging materials through acceleration-time data achieved from dropping a falling guided platen assembly onto a motionless sample. This test method does not address any effects or contributions of exterior packaging assemblies.

1.2 The data acquired may be used for a single point or for use in developing a dynamic cushion curve for the specific material being tested. Curves are used either to predict performance of materials under use conditions or for comparison among different materials at specific input conditions. Caution should be used when attempting to compare data from different methods or when using such data for predicting in-package performance. Depending upon the particular materials of concern, correlation of such data (from among differing procedures or for predicting in-package performance) may be highly variable.

Note 1-Alternative and related method for possible consideration is Test Method D 4168.

1.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The SI units given in parentheses are for information only.

1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.>

ASTM D3951-98 Standard Practice for Commercial Packaging

1.1 This practice establishes minimum requirements for packaging of supplies and equipment, exclusive of ammunition, explosives, or hazardous materials, as covered in Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations.

1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

ASTM D4168-95(2002) Standard Test Methods for Transmitted Shock Characteristics of Foam-in-Place Cushioning Materials

1.1 These test methods determine the shock-absorbing characteristics of foam-in-place packaging materials.

1.2 Test Method A uses a free-fall package drop test apparatus.

1.3 Test Method B uses a shock-test apparatus.

1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

D4332-01e1 Standard Practice for Conditioning Containers, Packages, or Packaging Components for Testing

1.1 This practice provides for standard and special conditioning and testing atmospheres that may be used to simulate particular field conditions that a container, package, or packaging component may encounter during its life or testing cycle.

1.2 This practice describes procedures for conditioning these containers, packages, or packaging components so that they may reach equilibrium with the atmosphere to which they may be exposed.

1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

ASTM D4727/D4727M-98 Standard Specification for Corrugated and Solid Fiberboard Sheet Stock (Container Grade) and Cut Shapes

1.1 This specification covers fiberboard primarily used for the fabrication of boxes and interior details such as pads, sleeves, liners, partitions, die-cut sheets, etc.

1.2 The performance of fiberboard boxes is largely dependent on the paper components from which they are fabricated and, in the case of corrugated boxes, on the flute structure as well. Therefore, a variety of grades reflecting varied performance levels are specified.

1.3 The values stated in either inch-pound units or SI units are to be regarded separately as standard. Within the text, the SI units are shown in brackets. The values stated in each system are not exact equivalents; therefore, each system must be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard. See Practice E380 for conversion of units.

1.4 The following safety hazards caveat pertains only to the test portion, Sections 8 and 9, of this specification: This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

Index Terms

corrugated; cut shapes; domestic; fire retardant; sheets; solid fiberboard; weather resistant
ASTM D5118/D5118M-95(2001) Standard Practice for Fabrication of Fiberboard Shipping Boxes

1.1 This practice covers the fabrication of new fiberboard boxes, liners and sleeves.

1.2 This practice points out the factors and components that must be controlled in the manufacture of corrugated and solid fiberboard boxes, liners and sleeves.

1.3 This practice does not cover the adequacy of fiberboard containers under all conditions of exposure to atmosphere, handling, shipping and storage.

1.4 The values stated in either inch-pound units or SI units are to be regarded separately as standard. Within the text, the SI units are shown in brackets. The values stated in each system are not exact equivalents; therefore, each system must be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard.

1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

Index Terms

boxes; box fabrication; box styles; fiberboard

ASTM D5639/D5639M-95(2000)e1 Standard Practice for Selection of Corrugated Fiberboard Materials and Box Construction Based on Performance Requirements

1.1 This practice provides information on corrugated fiberboard for the prospective user who wants guidance in selecting attributes of materials and box construction based on performance requirements. These attributes should be part of specifications which establish levels of the qualities a shipping container must have in order to be acceptable to the purchaser or user. The attributes and qualities should be testable, using standard methods that are recognized by both the buyer and seller. This practice will assist users in developing specifications for corrugated containers through an analysis of performance requirements and subsequent relationships to fiberboard materials and box construction attributes. This practice is intended to provide specific corrugated container performance standards as opposed to packaged product performance evaluation through distribution and handling environments, such as Practice D4169.

1.2 The attributes and their levels should be based on the intended use of the box, including the handling and environment it will encounter. Many packaging regulations include detailed descriptions of the materials that may be used and style, closure, or other construction details of allowed shipping containers. These regulations are presented as minimum requirements; they may be exceeded for functional reasons, but there is no regulatory reason to do so. Rail and motor freight classifications applicable for surface common carrier transportation have established minimum requirements for certain attributes of corrugated packaging. These may or may not be appropriate for application in the complete distribution system, as they encompass only containerboard or combined corrugated board-not finished boxes-and are not intended to provide for the distribution system beyond the transportation segment.

1.3 Corrugated containers for packaging of hazardous materials for transportation must comply with federal regulations administered by the U.S. Department of Transportation (Code of Federal Regulations-49CFR).

1.4 The values stated in both SI and inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. Within the text, the inch-pound units are shown in brackets. The values stated in each system are not exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other.

1.5 Lists and Descriptions of Performance and Material Characteristics and Related Test Procedures--For further information on the development of performance-based specifications, please refer to the sections on Specifications and Test Procedures of the Fibre Box Handbook.

1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

ASTM D6039/D6039M-02 Standard Specification for Crates, WOOD, Open and Covered

.1 This specification covers five types and two styles of open and one type, and one style of covered WOOD crates designed for net loads not exceeding 4000 lb [1814 kg]. Open crates are suitable for shipment of items, which are not readily susceptible to damage from outside forces, and which require only limited protection against the elements.

1.2 If environmental protection is necessary, use of a shroud or a covered crate should be considered. With the exception of Type III, Style B crates, the crates included in this specification are for use in domestic and overseas shipment of net loads not over 4000 lb [1814 kg]. Use shall be confined to items falling within the dimensions and weight limitations of the types and grades specified in .

1.3 In general, Style A crates have heavier components and are to withstand rather severe handling and multiple shipments (heavy-duty), while Style B crates should be confined to handling and shipping that impose only light to moderate hazards on the container (light-duty). Types I, IV, and V crates are general purpose types; Type II crates are designed for items such as ladders, tubing, extrusions, or wallboard which do not require blocking, bracing, or cushioning; and Type III, Style B crates are designed for such self-supporting material as channels, angles, or other structural members where the container serves only as a means for more convenient stacking and handling.

1.4 The values stated in either inch-pound or SI units shall be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system must be used independently of the other, without combining values in any way.

1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

1.6 If the use of other construction methods or techniques is acceptable and permitted (see ), the resulting packaging systems shall be of equal or better performance than would result from the use of these specified materials and procedures. The appropriate distribution cycle specified in Practice ASTM D 4169 can be used to develop comparative procedures and criteria.
ASTM D6055-96(2002) Standard Test Methods for Mechanical Handling of Unitized Loads and Large Shipping Cases and Crates

1.1 These test methods are suitable for testing the integrity of unitized loads and large cases and crates, but not individual drums or palletized drums, as well as the ability of the contents to endure normal handling, using standard mechanical handling equipment. Not all of the test methods are applicable to all products containers and loads. These test methods are applicable to common means of material handling, including pull pack, clamp truck, and spade lift-type handling equipment as follows:

1.1.1 Test Method A—Fork Truck Handling—For testing the ability of the shipping unit to withstand repeated handlings by this test method.

1.1.2 Test Method B—Spade Lift Test—For lifting by spade lift attachment to determine the ability of the handling flap of the case or shipping unit to withstand repeated lifting and handling by this test method.

1.1.3 Test Method C—Clamp Handling Test—For lifting by hydraulic clamp attachment, to determine the ability of the shipping unit to withstand squeeze clamp handling consisting of repeated side compression and lifting.

1.1.4 Test Method D—Push-Pull Handling Test—For testing the ability of a unitized load on a slip-sheet to withstand repeated handling by this test method.

1.1.5 Test Method E—Grabhook Test—For lifting by grabhooks to determine the ability of the shipping unit to withstand the horizontal pressures of grabhooks.

1.1.6 Test Method F—Sling Tests—For lifting by wire rope, cable, or woven fiber slings to determine the ability of the shipping unit to withstand the compression of slings.

1.2 Additional Test Methods:

1.2.1 Additional test methods that apply to mechanical handling and rough handling tests of unitized loads and large cases and crates include incline impact tests, described in Test Method D 880; horizontal impact tests, described in Test Method D 4003.

1.2.2 Practice D 4169 provides a series of options for selecting and running performance tests on all types of shipping containers and systems.

1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

ASTM D6251/D6251M-01 Standard Specification for Wood-Cleated Panel board Shipping Boxes

1.1 This specification covers the fabrication and closure of empty and full wood-cleated, hereafter referred to as wood-cleated, panelboard boxes. These boxes are intended for use as containers for domestic and overseas shipment of general materials and supplies, not exceeding 1000 lb [454 kg] depending on box type (see 10.1).

1.2 Wood-cleated panelboard shipping box performance is dependent on its fabricated components and subsequent assembly; therefore, a variety of types, classes, styles, and treatments reflecting varied performance are specified. This specification, however, does not cover wood-cleated panelboard box performance under all atmospheric, handling, shipping, and storage conditions.

1.3 If the use of other construction methods or techniques is acceptable and permitted (see 5.1.17), the resulting packaging systems shall be of equal or better performance than would result from the use of these specified materials and procedures. The appropriate distribution cycle, specified in Practice D4169, can be used to develop comparative procedures and criteria.

1.4 The values stated in either inch-pound units or SI units are to be regarded separately as standard. Within the text, the SI units are shown in brackets. The values stated in each system are not exact equivalents; therefore, each system must be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in nonconformance with the standard. See IEEE/ASTM SI 10 for conversion of units.

1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of the standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

Index Terms

box; cleat; cleated-plywood; container; fasteners; nails; packaging; panel; panelboard; shipping container; skid; staples; wire stitches;

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